Lygia Pape (Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, 1927 – Rio de Janeiro, 2004). Sculptress, engraver and filmmaker. Studied with Fayga Ostrower (1920 – 2001), at the Museum of Modern Art of Rio de Janeiro (MAM/RJ). Approached Concretism and in 1957, after joining the Grupo Frente [Front Group], was one of the signatories of the Manifesto Neoconcreto [Neoconcretist Manifesto]. In the following year, she designed the Ballet Neoconcreto I, [Neoconcretist Ballet I] with the poet Reynaldo Jardim (1926- ), staging it at the Copacabana Theatre, and two years later, took part in the Konkrete Kunst [International Exhibition of Concrete Art] exhibition in Zurich. At the end of the 1950s, she began the trilogy of artist’s books composed of Livro da Criação [Book of Creation], Livro da Arquitetura [Book of Architecture] and Livro do Tempo [Book of Time]. From the 1960s onwards, she worked with film scripts, editing and film direction, doing the visual programming of films of the Cinema Novo movement. Also during the 1960s, she produced wooden sculptures and realised the Livro-Poema [Book-Poem], composed of woodcuts and concrete poems. In 1971, she made the short film O Guarda-Chuva Vermelho [The Red Umbrella], about Oswaldo Goeldi (1895 – 1961). In 1980, she went to New York with a scholarship from the Guggenheim Foundation. Her work was characterised by the freedom with which she experimented and manipulated various languages and formats and also incorporated the spectator as an agent. In this way, her experiments followed a parallel path to those of Hélio Oiticica (1937 – 1980) and Lygia Clark (1920 – 1988). After the death of Hélio Oiticica, she organised the Hélio Oiticica Project, together with the graphic artist Luciano Figueiredo (1948- ) and the poet Waly Salomão (1943 – 2003), which aimed to preserve and promote the artist’s work. In 1990, with a scholarship from the Vitae Foundation, she executed the Tteias project, in which she combined light and movement. In 2004, the Associação Cultural Projeto Lygia Pape [Lygia Pape Project Cultural Association] was founded, designed by the artist herself and directed by her daughter, Paula Pape.